See the following webpages for variations in your APA references:
What is APA style, and why do I need to use it?
APA style is a set of guidelines created to help writers express their ideas and researching clearly and consistently. APA style was created by the American Psychological Association and it is used in the social sciences, sciences, and health sciences. Specific programs that use APA at CSS include psychology, nursing, management, education, physical therapy, occupational therapy, project management, CIS, as well as other programs. Check with your program director or course instructor to see what citation style should be used in your courses.
To assist you with writing in APA Style, the American Psychological Association published the APA Manual, 7th edition. This manual is available in the Library, and you can purchase it at any major bookstore and online. The manual outlines the guidelines and "rules" for writing in APA style. It also includes numerous examples, templates, and other resources to assist you in your writing.
For more information about writing in APA Style, 7th edition, consult the APA Manual or contact a librarian for assistance.
The reference list should be double spaced; however, there should not be an extra space between references.
For more information about formatting the reference list, see Sect. 2.12 on pages 39-40 and Section 9.43 on page 303 of the APA Manual, 7th edition. Also, see the student example papers. There is also a student sample paper in the APA Manual on page 61.
What is the proper use of a comma when I have a series of three or more words or phrases in a sentence?
When listing items in a series of 3 or more, add a comma after the word that is before the AND or the OR. This type of comma is known as a serial comma or an Oxford comma.
For more information about the use fo commas, see Section 6.3 on pages 155-156 of the APA Manual, 7th edition
If the author has a first and middle name, do I put a space between the initials?
Yes, include a space after the period of the initials of an author's name.
For more information about spacing after punctuation marks, see Section 6.1 on page 154 of the APA Manual, 7th edition.
How do I cite an article that is cited in the article I am using?
According to APA, this is known as a secondary source. To cite a secondary source, provide a reference in the reference list for the secondary source you are using or reading. In the body of the paper, identify the original source or the source that was cited and include a citation for the secondary source with "as cited in" before the parenthetical citation. Additionally, if the date of the original source is known, include this information. You can either include the author's name and date in the narrative of the text or include in the parenthetical citation. See the examples below.
If the date of the original source is not known, then include the author's name of the original source but omit the date. NOTE: Secondary sources should be used very sparingly. Examples of when you may need to cite a source as a secondary source include, if the source is no longer in print, unavailable, or available only in a language that you do not know or understand. You should try to track down the source, read the content, and cite it accordingly.
You discovered a potentially great source for your paper! It is an article written by Seidenberg and McClelland that is cited in the Coltheart et al. article that you read, and it looks promising to include in your paper. But you cannot locate the original article by Seidenberg and McClelland.
The groundbreaking 1989 study by Seidenberg and McClelland outlined .... (as cited in Coltheart et al., 1993)
A new approach to .... (Seidenberg & McClelland, 1982, as cited in Coltheart et al., 1993)
Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993). Models of reading aloud: Dual -rout and parallel-distributed-processing approaches. Psychological Reviews, 100(4), 589-608. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.100.4.589
For more information about secondary sources, see Section 8.6 on page 258 of the APA Manual, 7th edition.
What is a block quote, and how is it formatted?
A block quote is any quote that is 40 or more words. A block quote is formatted differently than a quote that is less than 40 words.
According to Milton (2014),
The DMIS [Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity] continuum extends from ethnocentrism, the experience of one's own culture as "central to reality," to ethnorelativism, the experience of one's own and other cultures as "relative to context." Developmental movement is one way, permanent, and applicable to any defined as cultural difference, although there may be "retreats" from some positions. More or less familiarity with particular cultures does not change one's level of sensitivity, although it affects the breadth of competence on can enact. (para. 3)
The Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity was summarized as follows:
The DMIS continuum extends from ethnocentrism, the experience of one's own culture as "central to reality," to ethnorelativism, the experience of one's own and other cultures as "relative to context." Developmental movement is one way, permanent, and applicable to any defined as cultural difference, although there may be "retreats" from some positions. More or less familiarity with particular cultures does not change one's level of sensitivity, although it affects the breadth of competence on can enact. (Milton, 2014, para. 3)
For more information about block quotes, see Section 8.27 on pages 272-273 of the APA Manual, 7th edition.
How do I cite multiple chapters of a book with the same authors?
It depends on the type of book you are trying to cite. If the book is an authored book, a type of book where all chapters are written by the same author, then you would cite the entire book. In the reference list, create a reference for the entire book.
Do not include chapter information within the reference list. Instead, within the body of the paper, refer to each specific Chapter in the parenthetical or narrative citation.
If the book is an edited book and each chapter is written by a different author, then you should cite each chapter separately in the reference list. See the following webpages for examples and explanations:
Additionally, see question 8 about adding multiple sources with the same author and same date.
For more information, see the introduction paragraph of Section 10.2 on page 321 of the APA Manual, 7th edition.
How do I cite multiple sources by the same author? What if the sources have the same author and the same publication date?
If the source has 1 author, first alphabetize in the reference list by the first author. Then, organize each source by the publication date. The oldest sources should be listed before sources with newer publication dates. Also, if the source has no date, it should be listed before those with dates.
Newman, T. R. (n.d.).
Newman, T. R. (1992).
Newman, T. R. (2000).
Newman, T. R. (2016).
If the source has more than 1 author, first alphabetize in the reference list by the first author. If all the authors are the same in all the sources, then, order each source by the publication date. Sources with older publication dates should be listed first. If a source has no date, then it would be listed before sources that have a date.
If the first author is the same but subsequent authors are different, order sources by alphabetical order of the second or subsequent authors.
Newman, T. R., & Ross, K. (n.d.)
Newman, T. R., & Ross, K. (2015).
Newman, T. R., & Ross, K. (2018).
Newman, T. R., Ross, K., & Smith, J. E. (2019).
Newman, T. R., Ross, K., & Yang, K. (2017).
First, alphabetize the source in the reference list by the first author. Then, order each source by date. Next, when multiple sources have the same date, order these sources by alphabetizing the title. Once all sources are in the correct order, add a small letter (a, b, c, etc.) after the date. This small letter helps the reader to distinguish between each source with the same date.
Newman, T. R. (2018a). Learning how to teach: Instructional services to the rescue for new faculty.
Newman, T. R. (2018b). Online faculty experiences in the first year.
Newman, T. R, & Ross, K. (2017a). Support for returning graduate students.
Newman, T. R., & Ross, K. (2017b). Understanding the needs of online students.
Newman and Ross (2017a) outlined ...
For more information about multiple sources with the same author with the same or different publication dates, see Sections 9.46-9.48 on pages 304-306 of the APA Manual, 7th edition.
When should abbreviations be used, and how should they be used?
Abbreviations may be used for long, technical terms that are used frequently within a paper written in APA Style. When adding an abbreviation in a paper, consider the following:
For more information about abbreviations, see sections 6.24-6.26 on pages 172-174 of the APA Manual, 7th edition.