Please use the pull-down menu on the "Reference Formats" tab to see examples and explanations for a variety of resources.
See the APA FAQs tab for some frequently asked questions; however, please consult the APA Manual 7th edition for more complex resources or ones that do not follow the standard pattern. Copies of this manual are available on reserve at the Library or else you can purchase copies at a bookstore near you.
When writing in APA style, there are two parts needed to alert readers of the sources used in the paper. The first part is the in-text citation, which includes the author and date of the source. This alerts the reader what sources influenced your writing, gives credit to the sources, helps you to avoid plagiarism, and demonstrates your integrity as a future professional.
The second part is the reference list. The reference list provides the reader with the information needed to identify and track down sources used in the paper. This allows the reader to learn more about the subject matter if the reader would like to learn more.
When creating references for the reference list, there are 4 parts or elements to the reference that answers 4 questions. Looking for these 4 parts or elements and answering these 4 questions will help you create a reference for just about any source you use in a paper.
The 4 parts to the reference and the 4 questions are as follows:
Additionally, all sources will fall into 4 major source type categories. These 4 categories are as follows:
The CSS librarians have created examples and step-by-step instructions for creating some of the most common references used in course papers at CSS. Click on the pull-down menu on the Reference tab to locate these examples and instructions.
For more information about references, see Chapters 9 and 10 of the APA Manual, 7th edition.