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Citation Help for APA, 7th Edition: Encyclopedia

Help with common issues and questions with APA 7th edition

Variation - Editors

Multiple Editors?

Example:

Lyons, A. C., McCreanor, T., Goodwin, I., & Barnes, H. M. (Eds.). (2017). Youth drinking cultures in a digital world: Alcohol, social media, and cultures of intoxication. Routledge. 

Explanation:

List all of the editors in the order as they appear on the title page. Then, after the last editor, add the abbreviation for editors (Eds.) followed by a period and put within parentheses. End with a period after the parentheses.


Only One Editor?


Instead of Eds., use Ed. followed by a period and placed in parentheses. End with a period after the parentheses. 

Example:

Sternberg, R. J. (Ed.). (2016). Career paths in psychology: Where your degree can take you (3rd ed.).  American Psychological Association.

More information: 

For more information about editors, see Section 9.10 on pages 287-288 of the APA Manual, 7th edition.

Variation - Edition?

Example

Smith, S. F., Duell, D. J., Martin, B. C. Aebersold, M. L., & Gonzalez, L. (2016). Clinical nursing skills: Basic to advanced skills (9th ed.). Pearson.

Explanation

Place the edition number in parentheses after the book title. Follow by "ed." and a period outside the parentheses. There is no period after the book title.

More Information

For more information about editions or volumes, see Section. 9.28 on page 295 of the APA Manual, 7th edition. 

Variation - No Author?

Article Example

How to launch your career in project management: Project management can be a rewarding and challenging career, but where do you start? (2018, February 27). Management Today https://www.managementtoday.co.uk/launch-career-project-management/your-career/article/1458219

Explanation

When there is no author move the article title to the author spot. Do not italicize title and end with a period. Follow the title with the publication date in parentheses. Then, complete the rest of the reference as directed by source type.

Parenthetical Citation

("How to Launch," 2018)

Parenthetical Explanation

When there is no author, look at the reference, first. Then, use the title (or whatever is in the author spot) in the citation within the body of the paper. If the title is italicized (as with a book or video) keep the italics in the citation. If the title is not italicized (as with a book chapter or article) put quotation marks around the title. Additionally, be sure to capitalize all major words in the title within the citation. Finally, if the title is overly long, shorten the title. NOTE: Notice in the parenthetical citation example that the comma is inside the quotation marks followed by the date. 

More Information

For more information about creating references for sources without authors, see Section 9.12 on page 289 of the APA Manual, 7th edition. For more information about creating parenthetical and narrative citations for sources with no authors, see Section 8.14 on pages 264-265 of the APA Manual, 7th edition.

Variation - Group Author?

Example

American Psychological Association. (2019). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

Explanation

Group authors include the name of a study group, government agency, association, corporation, task force, hospital, organization, etc. Put the name of the group author in the author position followed by a period. Do not include an abbreviation for the group author within the reference. Abbreviations should only be introduced and used within the body of the paper.

Parenthetical Citation

(American Psychological Association, 2019)

Narrative Citation

American Psychological Association (2019) ....

More information

For more information about group authors, see Section 9.11 on pages 288-289 of the APA Manual, 7th edition.

Variation - Multiple Authors?

Multiple Authors - 20 Authors or Less?

 

List all authors up to and including 20 authors. 

Example

Clarke, N., D'Amato, A., Higgs, M., & Ramesh, V. (2018). Responsible leadership in projects: Insights into ethical decision making. Project Management Institute.

Explanation

List each author's last name first followed by a comma. Then, add the initials for the first and middle names (if there is one). Add a period after each initial. Separate each author with a comma. Insert an ampersand (&) before the last author.

Parenthetical & Narrative Citations

For one or two authors, list all authors in the reference. For three or more authors, list the first author followed by et al. This includes the first time the source is used in the paper. 

Parenthetical Citation Example

(Clarke et al., 2018)

Narrative Citation Example

Clarke et al. (2018) found ......


Multiple Authors - 21 or More Authors?

 

List the first 19 authors' names, then insert an ellipse, and then add the last author's name.

Example

Gilbert, J. R., Smith, J. D., Johnson, R. S., Anderson, A., Plath, S., Martin, G., Sorenson, K., Jones, R., Adams, T., Rothbaum, Z., Esty, K., Gibbs, M., Taultson, B., Christner, G, Paulson, L., Tolo, K., Jacobson, W. L., Robinson, R. A., Maurer, O., . . . White, N. (2014). Choosing a title (2nd ed.). Unnamed  Publishing.

Parenthetical Citation Example

(Gilbert et al., 2014)

Narrative Citation Example

Gilbert et al. (2014) ...

More Information

For more information about author format, see Section 9.8 on page 286 of the APA Manual, 7th edition.

Encyclopedia Article

Example

 

Kerӓnen, L. (2014). Biopreparedness and biosecurity. In T. L. Thompson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of health

communication (Vol. 1, pp. 113-116). SAGE Reference.

Explanation

 

Author: Kerӓnen, L.

Begin the reference with the author of the encyclopedia article. Most often, you will find this at the end of the encyclopedia article. Add the last name first. After the author's last name, add a comma. Then, add the author's initials for his first name and middle name (if the middle name is provided). After each initial, add a period. If there is a middle initial provided, add a space between the initials. 
 

Year of Publication: (2014).

Next, add the date the encyclopedia was published. In parentheses, list the year of publication, which appears on the title page or the title page verso (back side of the title page). Add a period after the parentheses. 
 

Title & Subtitle of the Encyclopedia Article: Biopreparedness and biosecurity.

​Next, add the title and subtitle of the encyclopedia article. The title and subtitle are separated by a colon. Follow the general capitalization rule that says to only capitalize the first word of the title and subtitle as well as proper nouns. Do not italicize the title. Add a period after the article title. 
 

Editor(s) of the Book: In T. L. Thompson (Ed.),

Next, include the word "In" before the editor(s). List the names of the editors beginning with the initials for the first and middle names. Add a period after each initial, and if there is a middle name, add a space between the initials. Following the initials of each editor will be the editor's last name. Add "Ed." in parentheses (if multiple editors use Eds.) with a comma after the parentheses. 
 

Title & Subtitle of the Encyclopedia: Encyclopedia of health communication

Next, add the title and subtitle of the encyclopedia. The title and subtitle are separated by a colon. Capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle as well as any proper nouns. Italicize the title and subtitle. Do not add a period! 
 

Volume and Page Numbers: (Vol. 1, pp. 113-116).

Next, add the volume of the encyclopedia that the article appeared in with tthe abbreviation "Vol." before the number. Add a comma after the volume number. Then add the page numbers of the encyclopedia article, which are preceded by the abbreviation for pages, which is "pp." Place the volume and page numbers in parentheses, and add a period after the parentheses.
 

Source Information: SAGE Reference.

Complete the reference with the source information, which is the publisher of the encyclopedia. The publisher's name should be listed exactly as it appears on the title page including retaining the capitalization and spelling. End the reference with a period. NOTE: Do not include designations of business structure (e.g., Inc., Ltd., LLC, etc.). 

Parenthetical & Narrative Citation Examples

 

Parenthetical Citation Example: 

(Kerӓnen, 2014)

Narrative Citation Example: 

Kerӓnen (2014) suggested ...

 

More Information: 

For more information about author format within parenthetical and narrative citations, see Section 8.17 and Table 8.1 on page 266 of the APA Manual, 7th edition. 

 

Entire Encyclopedia

Example

 

Manning, M. J., & Wyatt, C. R. (Eds.). ( 2011). Encyclopedia of media and propaganda in wartime America. ABC-CLIO. 

Explanation


Author or Editor: Manning, M. J., Wyatt, C. R. (Eds.).

Begin the reference with the author or editor of the encyclopedia. If the encyclopedia has a series editor and a volume editor, only put the volume editors in the author spot. Begin by putting the last name first. After the author's last name, add a comma. Then, add the author's initials for the author's first name and middle name (if the middle name or middle initial is provided). After each initial add a period. In there is a middle name or middle initial provided, add a space between the initials. Add "Eds" in parentheses after the last editor's name. Add a period after "Eds" and after the parentheses.
 

Year of Publication: (2011).

Next, add the year the encyclopedia was published. In parentheses, list the year of publication, which appears on the title page or the verso page (back side of the title page). Add a period after the parentheses. 
 

Title & Subtitle of the Encyclopedia: Encyclopedia of media and propaganda in wartime America.

Next, add the title and subtitle of the encyclopedia. The title and subtitle are separated by a colon. Capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle as well as any proper nouns. Italicize the title and subtitle and add a period after the title.  
 

Source Information: ABC-CLIO.

​Complete the reference with the source information, which is the publisher of the encyclopedia. The publisher's name should be listed exactly as it appears on the title page, including retaining the capitalization and spelling. End the reference with a period. NOTE: Do not include designations of business structure (e.g., Inc., Ltd., LLC, etc.). 

Parenthetical & Narrative Citation Examples

 

Parenthetical Citation Example: (Manning & Wyatt, 2011)

Narrative Citation Example:  Manning and Wyatt (2011) suggested .....

Article in a Republished or Reissued Encyclopedia

Introduction

 

Electronic encyclopedias, like some of those in the CSS databases, that were originally published in print and later published as an ebook should be referenced as republished or reissued works. 

Example

 

Bowman, S., & Johnson, S. (2007). Age stratification and the elderly. In K. Christensen & D. Levinson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of community: 

From the village to the virtual world. SAGE Publications. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412952583.n7 (Original work published 2003)

Explanation

 

Author: Bowman, S., & Johnson, S.

Begin the reference with the author of the encyclopedia article. Many times, you will find this at the end of the encyclopedia article. Begin by adding the last name first. Add a comma after the author's last name, and then add the author's initials for the author's first and middle name (if the middle name or middle initial is provided). After each initial, add a period. If there is a middle initial, add a space between the initials. 
 

Year of Publication: (2007). 

Next, add the year the encyclopedia was published. This should be the date of the current version that was consulted. The publication date should be in parentheses with a period after the parentheses. 
 

Title & Subtitle of the Encyclopedia Article: Age stratification and the elderly. 

Next, add the title and subtitle of the encyclopedia article. The title and subtitle are separated by a colon. Follow the general capitalization rule that says to only capitalize the first word of the title and subtitle as well as proper nouns. Do not italicize the title. Add a period after the article title.
 

Editor(s) of the Book: In K. Christensen & D. Levinson (Eds.), 

Next, begin by adding the word "In" before the editor(s). List the names of the editors beginning with the initials of the first and middle names. Add a period after each initial, and if there is a middle name, add a space between the initials. Following the initials of each editor will be the editor's last name. Add "Eds." in parentheses (in only one editor use Ed.) with a period after "Eds" and a comma after the parentheses. 
 

Title & Subtitle of the Encyclopedia: Encyclopedia of community: From the village to the virtual world.

Next, add the title and subtitle of the encyclopedia. The title and subtitle are separated by a colon. Capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle as well as proper nouns. Italicize the title and subtitle, and add a period after the title. 
 

Source Information: SAGE Publications. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412952583.n7

Next, add the source information, which includes the publisher and the DOI (if there is one). The publisher's name should be listed exactly as it appears on the title page, including retaining the capitalization and spelling. Add a period after the publisher. Then, add the DOI using the current DOI URL format. The current standard for the DOI begins with "https://doi.org". Do not add a period after the DOI. 
 

Republished Information: (Original work published 2003)

Complete with a note about when the work was originally published. In parentheses, add "Original work published" and the date the work was first published. Do not add a period after the parentheses. 

 

More Information:

For more information, about republished or reissued works, see Section 9.41 on page 302, Section 10.3 on page 326, and example 29 on page 323 of the APA Manual, 7th edition. 

Parenthetical & Narrative Citation Examples

 

Parenthetical Citation Example: 

(Bowman & Johnson, 2003/2007)

Narrative Citation Example: 

Bowman and Johnson (2003/2007) described ...

 

More Information: 

For more information about author format within parenthetical and narrative citations, see Section 8.17 and Table 8.1 on page 266 of the APA Manual, 7th edition.