Some URLs may be long and complicated. APA 7th edition allows the use of shorter URLs. Shortened URLs can be created using any URL shortener service; however, if you choose to shorten the URL, you must double-check that the URL is functioning and brings the reader to the correct website.
Common URL Shortner websites include:
For more information about URLs, see Section 9.36 on page 300 of APA Manual, 7th edition.
NOTE: Check your instructor's preference about using short URLs. Some instructors may want the full URL.
Some DOIs may be long and complicated. APA 7th edition allows the use of shorter DOI numbers. Shortened DOIs can be located at the International DOI Foundations, shortDOI Service.
For more information about DOIs, see Section 9.36 on page 300 of APA Manual, 7th edition.
NOTE: Check your instructor's preference for using short DOIs. Some instructors may want the full DOI.
It depends. When adding URLs to a paper or other work, first, be sure to include the full hyperlink. This includes the http:// or the https://. Additionally, consider where and how the paper or work will be published or read. If the work will only be read in print or as a Word doc or Google Doc, then the URLs should not be live (i.e., they are not blue or underlined). However, if the work will be published or read online, then APA advises to include live URLs. This would allow the reader to click on a link and go to the source.
For more information, see Section 9.35 on pages 299-300 of the APA Manual, 7th edition.
NOTE: Check your instructor's preference about using live URLs. Some instructors may not want you to use live URLs.
Conference sessions and presentations include conference sessions, paper presentations, poster presentations, keynote addresses, and symposium contributions. In brackets after the title, disclose the presentation type as described by the conference.
For more information about conference sessions and presentations, see Section 10.5 on page 332 of the APA Manual, 7th ed.
Reeve, D., Rottmann, C., & Sacks, R. (2015, June 14-15). The ebb and flow of engineering leadership orientations [Conference session].
2015 ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition Proceedings, Seattle, WA, United States. https://doi.org/10.18260/p.24857
Begin the reference with the presenter's last name. Add a comma after the presenter's last name. Then, add the presenter's first and middle name represented by initials. Add a period after each initial. If the presenter provides a middle name, be sure to add a space between the first and middle initial. If there are additional presenters, add a comma after the middle initials, and proceed to add the other presenters using the same format as described. Add additional presenters in the exact order they are listed in the conference session. Do not change the order of the presenters. Before the last presenter, add an ampersand (&).
Next, add the date of the conference. In parentheses, add the year, followed by a comma and the month, followed by the day. If the conference took place over multiple days, list the full date range of the conference with a hyphen between the days. Add a period after the parentheses.
Next, add the title and subtitle of the conference session. The title and subtitle are separated by a colon. Capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle as well as proper nouns. Italicize the title. After the title, in brackets, add a description of the contribution (i.e., conference session, poster presentation, keynote address, etc.). Be sure to use the description that the conference uses. Add a period after the brackets.
Complete the reference with the conference location and the DOI or URL. Add the full title of the conference followed by a comma. Then, add the city, state abbreviation, and country where the conference took place. Finally, add the DOI in the form of https://doi.org OR add the URL to the conference paper. Do not add a period after the DOI or the URL.
For more information and examples, see pages 332-333 of the APA Manual, 7th edition.
(Reeve et al., 2015)
Reeve et al. (2015) explained .....
If a source has 3 or more authors, list the first author followed by et al. Follow this format even when using the source for the first time in the paper. For more information about author format within parenthetical and narrative citations, see Section 8.17 and Table 8.1 on page 266 of the APA Manual, 7th edition.