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Citation Help for APA, 7th Edition: Images

Help with common issues and questions with APA 7th edition

Introduction

Painter standing next to and leaning on their painting of a horseIn APA, images fall under the Audiovisual Group. Images include all sorts of visual media including photographs, clip art, infographics, charts, paintings, drawings, and more. Because images are outside the peer-reviewed literature (i.e., articles, books, etc.), you will need to include a description of the item in brackets. The description helps your reader to identify and locate the item. Examples of descriptions to use in brackets include:

  • Photograph
  • Infographic
  • Painting
  • Clip Art
  • Map

There are a number of examples with descriptive information in brackets in Chapter 10 of the APA Manual. The description in brackets should be consistent throughout the references; however, if you cannot find an exact example to follow, you may choose wording that best describes the work. Be succinct when choosing the descriptions. 

If you include an image within the body of your paper, not only will you need to include a reference in the reference list, you will also need to treat the image as a Figure in your paper. You can find more information in Chapter 7 of your APA Manual. 

Variation - No Author?

Article Example

How to launch your career in project management: Project management can be a rewarding and challenging career, but where do you start? (2018, February 27). Management Today https://www.managementtoday.co.uk/launch-career-project-management/your-career/article/1458219

Explanation

When there is no author move the article title to the author spot. Do not italicize title and end with a period. Follow the title with the publication date in parentheses. Then, complete the rest of the reference as directed by source type.

Parenthetical Citation

("How to Launch," 2018)

Parenthetical Explanation

When there is no author, look at the reference, first. Then, use the title (or whatever is in the author spot) in the citation within the body of the paper. If the title is italicized (as with a book or video) keep the italics in the citation. If the title is not italicized (as with a book chapter or article) put quotation marks around the title. Additionally, be sure to capitalize all major words in the title within the citation. Finally, if the title is overly long, shorten the title. NOTE: Notice in the parenthetical citation example that the comma is inside the quotation marks followed by the date. 

More Information

For more information about creating references for sources without authors, see Section 9.12 on page 289 of the APA Manual, 7th edition. For more information about creating parenthetical and narrative citations for sources with no authors, see Section 8.14 on pages 264-265 of the APA Manual, 7th edition.

Variation - No Date?

No Date of Publication?

Example

Fellows, S. (n.d.). Seeing the moon rise. Paulson.

Explanation

For sources where the publication date is unknown or cannot be determined, use the abbreviation "n.d." which stands for no date. Use small letters and place a period after each letter. There should be no space between the letters.
 

More Information

For more information about sources with no date, see Section 9.17 on page 291 of the APA Manual, 7th edition.

Photograph

Example

 

Trim, D. (2021, January 24). Kingfisher in the snow [Photograph]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/danieltrim/50922966558/in/explore-2021-02-10/

 

Explanation

 

Author or Creator: Trim, D.

Begin with the reference with the person who took the photograph. The author may also be an alias or a group author. List the instructor's last name followed by a comma. Then, add the first and middle initials (if there is a middle initial). After each initial, add a period. If there is a middle initial, add a space between the initials. 

Date of Photograph: (2021, January 24).

Next, add the date the photograph was published. If the month and day are known, you may include this information. Be sure to list the year first, followed by the full spelling of the month and then the day. The date should be in parentheses and include a period after the parentheses. If there is no date listed for when the photograph was published, then use the abbreviation for no date, which is "n.d." Be sure to add a period after each letter of the abbreviation. 

Title of the Photograph: Kingfisher in the snow [Photograph].

After the date, add the title of the Photograph. The title should follow the general capitalization rule that says to capitalize the first word of the title and subtitle as well as proper nouns. The title should be italicized. After the title, add "Photograph" in brackets. Add a period after the brackets. 

Source Information: Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/danieltrim/50922966558/in/explore-2021-02-10/

Complete the reference by listing the name of the website where the photo can be found or the publisher of the photograph. In this case, it is Flickr. The website title or publisher should be capitalized but not italicized.  Add a period after the website name or the publisher. In the event the photograph was found online, add the URL for the photograph.  Do not add a period after the URL!

More Information:

For more information about citing photographs, see the Introduction to the Audiovisual Media section on pp. 341-342 and example 101 on page 347 of the APA Manual, 7th edition.  

 

Parenthetical & Narrative Citation Examples

Parenthetical Citation:

(Trim, 2021)

Narrative Citation:

Trim's (2021) photograph showed ..... 

 

More Information:

For more information about author format within parenthetical and narrative citations, see Section 8.17 and Table 8.1 on page 266 of the APA Manual, 7th edition. 

 

Clip Art or Stock Images

Example

 

wildchief. (2015). Grey cartoon robot [Clip art]. Openclipart. https://openclipart.org/detail/327992/grey-cartoon-robot

 

Explanation

 

Author or Creator: wildchief.

Begin with the reference with the person who created or uploaded the clip art image. The author or creator may also be an alias or a group author. In this case, the creator's name is an alias. Spell out the alias as provided with the image and pay attention to capitalization, punctuation, etc. Add a period after the alias. 

Date of Photograph: (2021).

Next, add the date the clip art was uploaded or published. The date should be in parentheses and include a period after the parentheses. If there is no date listed for when the clip art was published, then use the abbreviation for no date, which is "n.d." Be sure to add a period after each letter of the abbreviation and after the parentheses.  

Title of the Photograph: Grey cartoon robot [Clip art].

After the date, add the title of the clip art. The title should follow the general capitalization rule that says to capitalize the first word of the title and subtitle as well as proper nouns. The title should be italicized. After the title, add "Clip art " in brackets. Add a period after the brackets. 

Source Information: Openclipart. https://openclipart.org/detail/327992/grey-cartoon-robot

Complete the reference by listing the name of the website where the clip art can be found. In this case, it is Openclipart. The website title should be capitalized but not italicized.  Add a period after the website name. After the website name, add the direct URL for the clip art.  Do not add a period after the URL!

More Information:

For more information about citing photographs, see the Introduction to the Audiovisual Media section on pp. 341-342 and example 98 on page 346 of the APA Manual, 7th edition.  

 

Parenthetical & Narrative Citation Examples

Parenthetical Citation:

(wildchief, 2021)

Narrative Citation:

The clip art created by wildchief (2021) ..... 

 

More Information:

For more information about author format within parenthetical and narrative citations, see Section 8.17 and Table 8.1 on page 266 of the APA Manual, 7th edition.