Books (from Section 126.96.36.199)
Basic Format – Author last name First initial. Year. Title of book. Edition. City of publication (State): Publisher.
Examples and Variations:
Book with single author (and multiple editions; from Section 188.8.131.52.3)
Petrides GA. 1972. A field guide to trees and shrubs: northeastern and north-central United States and southeastern and south-central Canada. 2nd ed. Boston (MA): Houghton Mifflin.
In text example: Red pine (Pinus resinosa) is a prominent pine found throughout Minnesota (Petrides 1972).
Variation - Book with multiple authors
Anderson C, Fischer A. 2015. North Shore: a natural history of Minnesota's Superior coast. Minneapolis (MN): University of Minnesota Press.
In text example: Anderson and Fischer (2015) indicate hay pickers and grass gatherers were important historical lakeshore users.
Variation - Book with an organization, company, or government agency, etc., as author
[AMN] Audubon Minnesota. 2007. The North Shore birding trail: a guide to birding Minnesota's North Shore of Lake Superior from Duluth to Grand Portage. St. Paul (MN): Audubon Minnesota.
In text example: The Minnesota Audubon Society supports birding throughout the Arrowhead region (AMN 2007).
Variation - Book with editors (from Section 184.108.40.206)
Jahren H, editor. 2017. The best American science and nature writing. Boston (MA): Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
In text example: Jahren (2017) has edited a fine volume of great science and nature pieces from 2016’s American periodicals.
Variation - Book chapter
Van Vleck LD. 1990. Color inheritance, parentage testing, genetic lethals. In: Evans JW, Borton A, Hintz HF, Van Vleck LD, editors. The horse. 2nd ed. New York (NY): WH Freeman. p. 472-536.
In text example: Van Vleck (1990) discusses genetic testing and coloration in horses.
Variation - Ebook*
Beedy EC, Hansen K, Pandolfino ER. 2013. Birds of the Sierra Nevada: their natural history, status, and distribution. Berkerley (CA): University of California Press. [Accessed 2015 Jul 22]. https://akin.css.edu/login?url= http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=e000xna&AN=562948&site=ehost-live&scope=site.
In text example: Grasslands of the Sierra Nevada Range offer important habitat for many breeding birds (Beedy et al. 2013).
*Note: More than likely you are using and ebook from one of our Ebsco databases, so don’t use the URL in the toolbar at the top of the screen. That is a temporary URL that only exists while you are in the database. In the book's record, look in the right-hand column for the permalink (or PURL). When you click on it a box will appear in the upper center of the screen with a URL inside. Use that one for your citation. In many ways the URL is a moot part of a citation since only readers with paid access to the ebook source can see the content.
Encyclopedia article (Section 220.127.116.11.10)
Basic Format – Author last name First initial. Date. Title of entry. In: Title of encyclopedia. City of publication (State): Publisher. Volume, pages. [access date]. Web address.
Examples and variations:
Woodward SL, Quinn JA. 2011. Emerald ash borer. In: Encyclopedia of invasive species: from Africanized honey bees to zebra mussels. Santa Barbara (CA): Greenwood. Vol. 1, p. 127-131.
In text example: The emerald ash borer spread throughout North America after its introduction (Woodward and Quinn 2011).
EBook encyclopedia with no page numbers
Guyer S. 2011. Climate change. In: Encyclopedia of the U.S. government and the environment: history, policy, and politics. Santa
Barbara (CA): ABC-CLIO. [11 paragraphs]. [accessed 2019 Sep 13]. https://akin.css.edu/login?url= https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/abcgovenv/climate_change/0?institutionId=2158
Note: For extended works it is permissible to do a good-faith estimation of the length of the article – [about 400 paragraphs].
EBook encyclopedia with page numbers
Hyder JP. 2011. Farm-to-table movement. In: Food in context. Detroit (MI): Gale. Volume 1, p. 275-278. [accessed 2019 Sep 13].