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Citation Help for AMA: In-text Citations

Examples, explanations, and links to help you cite your sources in the AMA style

In-text Citations: Examples

It sounds painful, but it doesn’t have to be!  Basically, when you use in-text citations, you are telling the reader where you got any and all information that did not come from inside your own head.  This is more obvious when you are directly quoting from a source, but it is also needed when you have summarized or paraphrased from a source and even if you got an idea from somewhere else. 


So how do you do it?  With AMA style, you will use superscript arabic numerals to number each of the sources in your text. The sources are numbered consecutively, and refer to the sources listed on the "References" page at the end of your paper.


The report1 found that...
As has been noted previously,2
This argument was refuted in another study.3
Other reports4,5confirm these findings. (Note: Two sources are cited.)
" has been the conclusion of this author."6 (Note: Use after direct quotation.)
In recent reports1,3-5,9surgical outcomes have been...(Note: Multiple sources cited; not all are consecutive.)

You may cite the same source more than once by using the same endnote number. However, when you repeat a number, you should include a page number, in parentheses, next to the note number.


The data1(p44) disproves the previous assertion...

Please see the AMA guide at the University of Washington for additional examples.